DEMONSTRA­TION, PROOF, EVIDENCE ※ S’agissant de science et de : “Evidence-Based Medicine”, EBM   [se]

Re-publication 2021 avec révision uniquement d’amélioration de la mise en forme de l’article.   67·al118

Document le plus récent présenté principal étant en date du (ou 1re publication ici le) dimanche 1er janvier 2017
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1.1. — ❮❮ Demonstration (n.) – Late 14c., “proof that something is true”, from Old French demonstration or directly from Latin demonstrationem (nominative demonstratio), noun of action from past participle stem of demonstrare “to point out, indicate, demonstrate”, figuratively, “to prove, establish”.
❮❮ From de- “entirely” (see : de-) + monstrare “to point out, show”, from monstrum “divine omen, wonder” (see : monster). ❯❯
1.2. — ❮❮ Demonstrate (v.) – 1550s, “to point out”, from Latin demonstratus, past participle of demonstrare “to indicate, describe” (see : demonstration). Meaning “to point out by argument or deduction” is from 1570s. Related : Demonstrated ; demonstrating. Latin also had commonstrare “point out, reveal”, praemonstrare “show beforehand, foretell”. ❯❯
1.3. — ❮❮ Monster (n.) – Early 14c., from Old French monstre, mostre “monster, monstrosity” (12c.), and directly from Latin monstrum “divine omen, portent, sign ; abnormal shape ; monster, monstrosity”.
❮❮ From root of monere “warn” (see monitor (n.)). Abnormal or prodigious animals were regarded as signs or omens of impending evil.
❮❮ Extended by late 14c. to imaginary animals composed of parts of creatures (centaur, griffin, etc.).
❮❮ Meaning “animal of vast size” is from 1520s ; sense of “person of inhuman cruelty or wickedness” is from 1550s.
❮❮ As an adjective, “of extraordinary size”, from 1837.
❮❮ In Old English, the monster Grendel was an aglæca, a word related to aglæc “calamity, terror, distress, oppression”. ❯❯
1.4. — ❮❮ Monitor (n.) – From Latin monitor “one who reminds, admonishes, or checks”, also “an overseer, instructor, guide, teacher”, agent noun from monere “to admonish, warn, advise”, which is related to memini “I remember, I am mindful of”, and to mens “mind”, from PIE root *men- (1) “to think” (see mind (n.)).
❮❮ Broadcasting sense of “a device to continuously check on the technical quality of a transmission” (1931) led to special sense of “a TV screen displaying the picture from a particular camera”. ❯❯
1.5. — ❮❮ Monitor (v.) – 1818, “to guide” ; 1924, “to check for quality” (originally especially of radio signals), from monitor (n.). General sense from 1944. Related : Monitored ; monitoring. ❯❯
1.6. — ❮❮ Mind (n.) – Late 12c., from Old English gemynd “memory, remembrance, state of being remembered ; thought, purpose ; conscious mind, intellect, intention”, Proto-Germanic *ga-mundiz (source also of Gothic muns “thought”, munan “to think” ; Old Norse minni “mind” ; German Minne (archaic) “love”, originally “memory, loving memory”), from PIE root *men- (1) “think, remember, have one’s mind aroused”, with derivatives referring to qualities of mind or states of thought (source also of Sanskrit matih “thought”, munih “sage, seer” ; Greek memona “I yearn”, mania “madness”, mantis “one who divines, prophet, seer” ; Latin mens “mind, understanding, reason”, memini “I remember”, mentio “remembrance” ; Lithuanian mintis “thought, idea”, Old Church Slavonic mineti “to believe, think”, Russian pamjat “memory”).
❮❮ Meaning “mental faculty” is mid-14c. “Memory”, one of the oldest senses, now is almost obsolete except in old expressions such as bear in mind, call to mind. ❮❮ Mind’s eye “remembrance” is early 15c. Phrase time out of mind is attested from early 15c. To pay no mind “disregard” is recorded from 1916, American English dialect. To have half a mind to “to have one’s mind half made up to (do something)” is recorded from 1726. Mind-reading is from 1882. ❯❯
1.7 — ❮❮ Mind (v.) – Mid-14c., “to remember, take care to remember”, also “to remind”, from mind (n.). Meaning “perceive, notice” is from late 15c. ; that of “to give heed to” is from 1550s ; that of “be careful about” is from 1737. Sense of “object to, dislike” is from c. 1600 ; negative use (with not) “to care for, to trouble oneself with” is attested from c. 1600. Meaning “to take care of, look after” is from 1690s. Related : Minded ; minding. Meiotic expression don’t mind if I do attested from 1847. ❯❯
1.8. — ❮❮ Pensive (adj.) – Late 14c., from Old French pensif “thoughtful, distracted, musing” (11c.), from penser “to think”, from Latin pensare “weigh, consider”, frequentative of pendere “weigh” (see : pendant). Related : Pensively ; pensiveness. ❯❯
1.9. — ❮❮ Pendant (n.) – Early 14c., “loose, hanging part of anything”, from Anglo-French pendaunt “hanging” (c. 1300), Old French pendant (13c.), noun use of present participle of pendre “to hang”, from Latin pendere “to hang”, from PIE *(s)pend-, extended form of root *(s)pen- “to pull, draw, stretch” (see : span (v.)). Meaning “dangling part of an earring” is attested from 1550s. ❯❯
1.10. — ❮❮ Think (v.) – Old English þencan “imagine, conceive in the mind ; consider, meditate, remember ; intend, wish, desire” (past tense þohte, past participle geþoht), probably originally “cause to appear to oneself”, from Proto-Germanic *thankjan (source also of Old Frisian thinka, Old Saxon thenkian, Old High German denchen, German denken, Old Norse þekkja, Gothic þagkjan).
❮❮ Old English þencan is the causative form of the distinct Old English verb þyncan “to seem, to appear” (past tense þuhte, past participle geþuht), from Proto-Germanic *thunkjan (source also of German dünken, däuchte).
❮❮ From PIE *tong- “to think, feel” which also is the root of thought and thank.
❮❮ The two Old English words converged in Middle English and þyncan “to seem” was absorbed, except for its preservation in archaic methinks “it seems to me”. As a noun, “act of prolonged thinking”, from 1834. The figurative thinking cap is attested from 1839. ❯❯


2.1. — ❮❮ Prove (v.) – Late 12c., pruven, proven “to try, test ; evaluate ; demonstrate”, from Old French prover, pruver “show ; convince ; put to the test” (11c., Modern French prouver), from Latin probare “to make good ; esteem, represent as good ; make credible, show, demonstrate ; test, inspect ; judge by trial” (source also of Spanish probar, Italian probare)
❮❮ From probus “worthy, good, upright, virtuous”, from PIE *pro-bhwo- “being in front”, from *pro-, extended form of root *per- (1) “forward, through” (see per), + root *bhu- “to be” (source also of Latin fui “I have been,” futurus “about to be ;” Old English beon “to be ;” see be). Related : Proved ; proven ; proving. ❯❯
2.2. — ❮❮ Proof (v.) – 1834, “to test,” from proof (n.). From 1950 as short for proofread (v.). Related : Proofed ; proofing. ❯❯
2.3. — ❮❮ Proof (n.) – Early 13c., preove “evidence to establish the fact of (something)”, from Anglo-French preove, Old French prueve “proof, test, experience” (13c., Modern French preuve), from Late Latin proba “a proof”, a back-formation from Latin probare “to prove” (see prove). “The devocalization of v to f ensued upon the loss of final e ; cf. the relation of v and f in believe, belief, relieve, relief, behove, behoof, etc.” [OED].
❮❮ Meaning “act of proving” is early 14c. Meaning “act of testing or making trial of anything” is from late 14c., from influence of prove. Meaning “standard of strength of distilled liquor” is from 1705. In photography from 1855. Typographical sense of “trial impression to test type” is from c. 1600. Numismatic sense of “coin struck to test a die” is from 1762 ; now mostly in reference to coins struck from highly polished dies, mainly for collectors.
❮❮ Adjectival sense (proof against) is recorded from 1590s, from the noun in expressions such as proof of (mid-15c.), hence extended senses involving “tested power” in compounds such as fireproof (1630s), waterproof (1725), foolproof (1902), etc. Shakespeare has shame-proof. Expression the proof is in the pudding (1915) is a curious perversion of earlier proof of the pudding is in the eating (1708), with proof in the sense “quality of proving good or turning out well” (17c.) ; perhaps an advertiser’s condensed form of the original. ❯❯


3.1. — ❮❮ Evidence (n.) / evident (adj.) – From Latin evidentem (nominative evidens) “perceptible, clear, obvious, apparent”. From ex “out, out of, fully” (see : ex-) + videntem (nominative videns), present participle of videre “to see” (see : vision). Evidence (n.) c. 1300, Evident (adj.) late 14c. : from Old French evidence / evident.
❮❮ “Appearance from which inferences may be drawn”, from Late Latin evidentia “proof”, in classical Latin “distinction, vivid presentation, clearness” in rhetoric, from stem of Latin evidens “obvious, apparent”.
❮❮ Meaning “ground for belief” is from late 14c. ; that of “obviousness” is from 1660s and tacks closely to the sense of evident.
❮❮ Legal senses are from c. 1500, when it began to oust witness. Also “one who furnishes testimony, witness” (1590s) ; hence turn (State’s) evidence. ❯❯ +
3.2. — ❮❮ Evidence (v.) – “show clearly, prove, give evidence of”, c. 1600, from evidence (n.). Related : Evidenced ; evidencing. ❯❯

Evidence-based medicine

What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word* and not the other way around. The worst thing you can do with words is to surrender to them.” George Orwell   * – for the word’s content 


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